Narungga

The Narungga language is historically associated with the Yorke Peninsula of South Australia. It shares similarities with the Kaurna and Nukunu languages which are spoken nearby. Today Narungga people live in places on the Yorke Peninsula such as Port Victoria, Point Pierce, Maitland, Moonta, Kadina, and Wallaroo, as well as in Adelaide and across South Australia more generally.

The Narungga language is in revival thanks to the work of Narungga people in collaboration with linguists. For example, 'Guungagu Nharangga Warra', a children’s Narungga dictionary, was published by the Narungga Aboriginal Progress Association in 2006. Since then, in 2010, another publication entitled 'Nharangga Wanggadja: Narungga Speaking' was written by Tania Wanganeen for the Narungga Aboriginal Progress Association. 

AIATSIS id : L.01

VARIATIONS

Adjabdurah, Adjadura, Adjahdurah, Adjahdural, Moor-in-nunjie, Murinandji, Nanunga, Naranga, Narangga, Narangga, Narranga, Narrangga, Narranggu, Narrang-gu, Narrangu, Narrang-u, Narrunga, Narunga, Nharangka, Turra, Wallaroo tribe.

 DISCLAIMER:  The above map is based upon the Horton Indigenous Map of Australia © Aboriginal Studies Press, AIATSIS, and Auslig/Sinclair, Knight, Merz, 1996. The full map is available on the  AIATSIS  website. The locations of the languages of SA, as stated on the this website are not intended for Land Claim use, and are an approximate guide only. Individual language project locations are based on information from publicly available MILR (ILS) documents.

DISCLAIMER:

The above map is based upon the Horton Indigenous Map of Australia © Aboriginal Studies Press, AIATSIS, and Auslig/Sinclair, Knight, Merz, 1996. The full map is available on the AIATSIS website. The locations of the languages of SA, as stated on the this website are not intended for Land Claim use, and are an approximate guide only. Individual language project locations are based on information from publicly available MILR (ILS) documents.

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Location

At the time of the European invasion, Narungga speakers lived on Yorke Peninsula. Today many Narungga people still live on their traditional country, although a significant number also reside in metropolitan Adelaide and other locations. In the 1970s, Norman Tindale estimated the traditional Narungga territory to be “Yorke Peninsula, north to Port Broughton; east to Hummock Range; at Bute, Wallaroo, Ardrossan, Marion Bay, and Cape Spencer” (see Tindale 1974, page 214).

Dialects and closely related languages

The Narungga language has no known distinct dialects, but is closely related to the Kaurna, Ngadjuri and Nukunu languages, which are all memebrs of the Thura-Yura linguistic grouping. It is also related to the Adnyamathanha language.

Present number and distribution of speakers

Since the 1930s, anthropologists and linguists have typically classified Narungga as either “severely endangered” or “extinct”. For example, in 1936, N.B. Tindale from the SA Museum wrote that he had recorded the last speaker of this language and, in 1963, the linguist Stephen Wurm classified the language as “critically endangered.” However, although Narungga has not been spoken fully for several decades, many members of the Narungga community retained some knowledge of it. In particular, the late Narungga Elders – including Gladys Elphick, Phoebe Wanganeen, Doris Graham and Eileen Jovic – maintained a linguistic storehouse of approximately 200 words and some idiomatic phrases. These Elders repeatedly promoted the value and importance of the language (for example see Graham & Graham 1987). As a consequence of their efforts, the language is currently being reclaimed and revived.

On 30 November 2001, at a community meeting held on Narungga land, Narungga people made speeches in their language for the first time in many decades. Narunnga was also spoken as part of the opening of the 2002 Adelaide Festival of Arts. Today, Tania Wanganeen makes regular speeches in the Narungga language, and has published a book Nharangga Wanggadja: Narungga Speaking which is full of speeches she has written for others to share (see Wanganeen for NAPA, 2010).

In the 2006 census, 26 people claimed they speak the Narungga language in their home.

People who have worked formerly on the language

From the 1930s onwards a number of linguists and anthropologists recorded Narungga vocabulary and compiled wordlists. This included N.B. Tindale, A. P. Elkin, Luise Hercus and Catherine Ellis. Hercus and Ellis’ work also involved making sound recordings of the language being spoken and/or sung by Gladys Elphick, Joe Owen, Cliff Edwards and others. In the 1980s, Narungga Elders, including Gladys Elphick, Phoebe Wanganeen, Doris Graham and Eileen Jovic, worked with Brian Kirke to prepare and publish the Narungga Language Kit. In May 2001, the linguist Christina Eira began working intensely with Tania Wanganeen on the Narungga People’s Language Project. Eira’s work was instigated by the Narungga community and is controlled by them through the Narungga Aboriginal Progress Association (NAPA). Over a 12 year period, NAPA has continued to coordinate language revival work in Narungga. Since Eira completed the contemporary Narungga Dictionary and A New Narungga Grammar in 2005, Tania Wanganeen has continued to teach, research and publish books in the Narungga language, through NAPA. Total output includes 13 Narungga publications and three years of training in Narungga for language teachers.

Practical spelling system

The Narungga Language Kit published in the 1980s contained alternative spellings for Narungga words. Since then, in early 2002, the first of a series of workshops was held to determine a practical spelling system for Narungga. These workshops, conducted as part of the Narungga People’s Language Project, resulted in a practical orthography which is outlined at the beginning of the (2006) Narungga Dictionary. This orthography and recommended spelling system was endorsed by the community and is now used in all subsequent Narungga publications

Early records and manuscripts

Some early settlers and missionaries who lived and worked on Narungga land collected examples of the language. This included Edward Snell (1849-59), Wilhelm Kuhn (1886) and T. M. Sutton (1889). In general, most early records containing Narungga language failed to properly acknowledge the expertise and assistance of Narungga people. Nevertheless, it is known that Snell’s wordlist was based on information he received from a Narungga woman whom he identified as Tanne Arrito. The knowledge of another Narungga woman, Louise Eggington, was also very important. First recorded in the 1890s, Eggington’s knowledge informed some important publications, including Johnson (1930-31) and Tindale (1936).

Wordlists/dictionaries

Altogether nearly 1000 Narungga words and phrases are recorded in historical and scientific records. Important early wordlists are found in Snell’s diaries (1849-59), Kuhn (1886), Black (1920), Johnson (recorded 1898-1900, published 1930-31) and Tindale (1936). In the 1980s, as the Narungga community began to reclaim their language some of these wordlists were reprinted (see Wanganeen & Narungga Community College 1987).

One of the main tasks of the Narungga People’s Language Project, which ran from 2001 to 2005, was to collate all the past wordlists and present knowledge of the language into one comprehensive dictionary, along with suggestions of pronunciation. The final product of 207 pages includes an alphabetical listing of all known Narungga words, plus an English-to-Narungga finder list at the back, and a section listing words by topic.

Grammar/sketch grammar

Another product of the Narungga People’s Language Project was the production of a Narungga grammar, through Eira’s comprehensive search of museum and library sources for any available grammatical information. By carefully analysing this information, and combining it with the knowledge of Narungga Elders, and by conducting a comparative analysis of closely related languages, Eira produced A New Narungga Grammar: the fragments of Budderer's waddy in 2006. This was followed by a more technical linguistic grammar explaining the processes undertaken in the reconstruction of the new grammar for Narungga, called Fragments of Budderer's Waddy: a new Narungga grammar (see Eira, 2010).

Language learning material

Since the 1980s, a number of important works have appeared, including Point Pearce: Past and present (Wanganeen & Narungga Community College 1987). In the late 1980s the South Australian College of Advanced Education (now the University of South Australia) funded Brian Kirke, Jillian Sumner and others to work with Narungga Elders to produce a “Narungga Language Kit”. In the late 1980s, the National Aboriginal Language Program provided 12-month funding for a team of teachers and linguists to assist Indigenous communities with the teaching of Aboriginal languages. Towards the end of that project, a songwriting workshop was held in which songs were written in Narungga and two other Nunga languages. These were subsequently published as a songbook and tape recording (Ngarrindjeri, Narrunga and Kaurna Languages Project 1990) and continue to be an important resource for initial language learning. Other language learning materials include: the book Maikuku Birku [Tucker’s Mob] (Varcoe & Amery 1992) and the book and accompanying video for Winda: a Narungga Dreaming Story (1998).

In more recent times, the Narungga People’s Language Project has produced many language booklets and resources, most of which have been funded by the MILR program, and published through Wakefield Press. From 2001 to 2005, Christina Eira and Tania Wanganeen worked together to produce the Narungga Dictionary and A New Narungga Grammar. Since then, NAPA has continued further language revival work and the publication of 13 language books and resources. Tania Wanganeen has produced a number of quality resources with the community, some of which have already been mentioned. Others include: Nharangga Dhura Midji: Narungga family terms (NAPA, 2010); Guungagu Nharangga Warra: children's Narungga dictionary (NAPA, 2006) ; plus a set of eight repetitive children's readers with the children's own illustrations and sentences, for example Ngayi Bammadja: I'm going (see NAPA, 2006).

Language Programs in schools

For more than a decade, Josie Sumner and other members of the Narungga community have taught Narungga in school and kindergartens both in Adelaide and on Yorke Peninsular. Since 2001, Narungga was one of nine Indigenous languages taught in South Australian schools (see DECS statitics by Wilson & Tunstill 2001). In 2010, Narungga was taught in nine schools, including: Curramulka Primary, Edithburgh Primary, Kadina Primary, Maitland Area, Minlaton District, Moonta Area, Point Pearce Aboriginal School, Stansbury Primary, all on Yorke Peninsula, plus in Adelaide at Salisbury North R - 7 School. See the DECS website for more details and statistics.

Community language functions/activities

Today, the Narungga community is actively promoting the wider use of its language. This includes an increasing amount of signage in Narungga at Point Pearce and at other places on Yorke Peninsular. In March 2002, Kevin O’Loughlin made a short speech in Narungga as part of the official opening ceremony for the 2002 Adelaide Festival of Arts.

Since April 2001, the main language development activity has been cordinated by NAPA, initially through the Narungga People’s Language Project. Activities were originally funded by Yaitya Worra Wodli, and later directly from Canberra, through the MILR program. The Project aimed “to restore the language to a level where it can be used independently, for speeches, stories, conversations and written language” and “to provide resources whereby children can claim their Language heritage, and to make the language available to all Narungga people and their descendants” (Lesley Wanganeen, cited in Wanganeen & Eira 2001).

It is a huge credit to Tania Wangannen, Dooky O'Loughlin, Lesley and Michael Wanganeen and many others who have actively participated in the revival of the Narungga language over the last decade or so. The use of the Narungga language has grown enormously in the community, and is now being used for giving speeches, singing songs, writing booklets, for greetings, for use in conducting cultural tours, and increasingly for teaching children and adults in language classes.

Above information written by Mary-Anne Gale with Rob Amery

+ Reference and Source Archive

ASTEC Key Centre. 1988. Narrunga language kit: a kit of materials on the Narrunga Aboriginal language of Yorke Peninsula, S.A. / produced under guidance of Narrunga people. [Underdale, S.A.: Aboriginal Studies and Teacher Education Centre (ASTEC), S.A. College of Advanced Education, [1988]. [Annotation: 28 colour prints, 96 Narrunga flash cards with corresponding English cards, 1 sound recording, 9 cartoon pictures, 1 booklet, 1 teacher’s guide.] [This material is avail]

BLACK J.M. 1920. Vocabularies of four South Australian languages, Adelaide, Narrunga, Kukata, and Narrinyeri, with special reference to their speech sounds. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 44, pp. 76-93. [[Informants: Mrs. Sarah Newchurch & Mr. Harry Richards] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

CARMICHAEL, E. 1973. The Ill-Shaped Leg: A story of the development of Yorke Peninsula. Gillingham Printers. [[See Chapter 1, section 6; contains language information from Johnson and Tindale.]]

CONDON, H. T. (Herbert Thomas). 1955. Aboriginal bird names - South Australia, pt 1 & 2. South Australian Ornithologist 21,6/7: pp.74-88; 21,8: pp.91-8. [[Annotation: Bird names in Aranda, Pitjantjatjara, Gugada, Antakarinya, Mirning, Wirangu, Yankunytjatjara, Wailbi, Wiljagali, Narangga, Kaurna, Ngadjuri, Bungandidj, Yawarawarga, Potaruwutj, Narrinyeri, Kujani, Yadliyawarra, Parnkala, Warki, Arabana, Dieri, Wangganguru, Ngamini, Nawu, Ngayawung, Nugunu & Ngalea. The wordlists have been taken from various other sources.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries.]]

EDUCATION DEPT OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 1988 Winda: a Narrunga Dreaming story: Years R-3. Adelaide : Education Dept. of South Australia. [(Aboriginal Studies R-12 / South Australia. Education Dept.) [Includes brief word list.] [This material is available at the Languages and Multicultural Resource Centre (LMRC).]]

EGGINGTON, George. 1991. Vocabulary of the Narangga tribe of the Lower York Peninsula: collected from George and Louisa Eggington circ[a] 1899-1905. [Sydney: W. & F. Pascoe for the Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales. [Microfilm: Held at Mitchell Library at MLB 1664.]]

EIRA, Christina. 2005. Morphology of a language of renewal: the relearning, revising and recreating practices of Narungga people. Paper presented at Blackwood by the Beach: Workshop on Australian Aboriginal Languages. March 18-20, 2005, University of Sydney. []

ELKIN, A. P. (Adolphus Peter) (1891-1979). 1930. Field notes on South Australian tribes, 1930: Notebooks numbered 1-9, 1930. [[General Note: Held in: Elkin Papers, University of Sydney Archives.]]

ELKIN, A. P. (Adolphus Peter). 1931. The social organization of South Australian tribes. Oceania.2,1: pp.44-73. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

ELLIS, Catherine J. (Catherine Joan). 1964. Meeting of Naranga people, singing and language elicitation. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Tape No.: 00116. Field tapes 64/5 and 64/5A. [Performer/Speaker: Cliff Edwards, Glad Elphick, Tarby Mason, Gert Goldsmith, Myrtle Kite, Amy Owen, Joe Owen, Rosie, Edie Stevens, Jack Long, Malcolm Murray; Place recorded: Point Pearce.]]

ELLIS, Catherine J. (Catherine Joan). 1963. Oral history of the Point Pearce area. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Tape No.: 00115. Field tape 63/3. [Performer/Speaker: Mike Gollan, Glad Elphick, Chris Richards; Place recorded: Adelaide.] ]

ELLIS, Catherine J. (Catherine Joan). 1964. Language elicitation, language boundaries and oral history. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Tape No.: 00117. Field tapes 64/5A, 65/5A and 64/7. [Access: Restricted - ceremonial and gender specific material.] [Performer/Speaker: Ethel Horwood, Jack Long, Malcolm Murray; Place recorded: Point Pearce, Adelaide.]]

FATSIL. 2002. Language of the Month Series: 14 The Narrungga language is spoken again. [[26/04/2002] ]

FOWLER, W. 1886. Yorke’s Peninsula, South Australia. In Curr, E.M. The Australian race: its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia and the routes by which it spread itself over that continent. Melbourne. Government Printer: Vol. 2, pp.143-145. VIEW HERE [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GILLEN, F. J. (Francis James), (1855-1912). n.d. Notes on some manners & customs of [Australian] Aborigines, l894-98. [[v.5; Narung-ga words; Table of Narung-ga relationship terms, totems & class]. [This material is available at the Barr Smith library, special collection.]]

GRAHAM, Doris May & GRAHAM, Cecil Wallace. 1987. As we've known it: 1911 to the present. Underdale, S. Aust.: South Australian College of Advanced Education, Aboriginal Studies and Teacher Education Centre. [[Includes word list, p.92.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

HERCUS, L. A. (Luise Anna),(1926-). 1973. Language elicitation and stories from Pt. Augusta, Marree, and Farina areas, SA. [Narangga, Arabana and Wangganguru language elicitation and texts.] AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Nos.: 03051 - 03060. Field tape numbers: 538 - 555.]

HILL, D.L. & HILL, S.J. 1975. Notes on the Narangga tribe of Yorke Peninsula. Port Lincoln, SA: Lutheran Publishing House. [[Tindale’s vocabulary only and ethnographic notes.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

HOWITT, A.W. 1904. The native tribes of south-east Australia. London, Macmillan. [Facsimile ed. 1996, Canberra, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies] VIEW HERE [[Annotation: Totem & Relationship terms] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

HOWITT, A. W. (Alfred William), (1830-1908). 1907. Word lists. Howitt Papers, Box 2, folder 1, paper 4 (Turra language, 53 words). AIATSIS print collection. []

HOWITT, A. W. (Alfred William), 1830-1908. Notes. Howitt Papers, Box 2, folder 6, paper 3 (Turra language, relationship terms). AIATSIS print collection. []

JOHNSON, James Howard. 1930-31. The native tongue: a valuable vocabulary [of Yorke Peninsula, SA]. The Pioneer: Southern Yorke Peninsula -- 26 Dec. 1930; 9 Jan. 1931; 16 Jan. [[Informants: George & Louisa Eggington.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia. Copies also held in the South Australian Museum, Series AA160/01 and found in Tindale 1936.]]

KÜHN, W. (Reverend). 1886. Yorke’s Peninsula. In Curr, E.M. The Australian race: its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia and the routes by which it spread itself over that continent. Melbourne. Government Printer: Vol. 2, pp.146-147. VIEW HERE [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

McENTIRE, E. 1879. 'The Wallaroo tribe (Yorke's Peninsula).' In Taplin, G. ed. 1879. The Folklore Manners, Customs, And Languages of the South Australian Aborigines: gathered from inquiries made by authority of South Australian Government. London: Government Print, (Reprinted 1971) Johnson Reprint Corporation. VIEW HERE [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

NGARRINDJERI, NARRUNGA AND KAURNA LANGUAGES PROJECT. 1990. Narrunga, Kaurna & Ngarrindjeri songs [kit with audio cassette]. Elizabeth, S. Aust.: Ngarrindjeri, Narrunga and Kaurna Languages Project, 1990. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

SNELL, Edward, (1820-1880). 1988. The life and adventures of Edward Snell: the illustrated diary of an artist, engineer and adventurer in the Australian colonies 1849 to 1859 / edited and introduced by Tom Griffiths with assistance from Alan Platt. North Ryde, N.S.W.: Angus & Robertson and The Library Council of Victoria. [[Informant: Tanne Arrito.]]

SUTTON, T. M. 1887. The Adjahdurah tribe of Aborigines on Yorke's Peninsula: some of their early customs and traditions. Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. South Australian Branch Proceedings Vol. 2, (1887-1888), p. 17-19. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

SUTTON, T. M. 1970. Adja-dura tribe, South Australia. Point Pearce Mission 1970. [wordlist 18 words.] AIATSIS print collection. []

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett),(1900-1993). 1936. 'Notes On The Natives Of The Southern Portion of Yorke Peninsula, South Australia'. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia, Vol. 60, pp. 55-70. [Speakers: George & Louisa Eggington, [Based on Johnson (1930-31).]]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett). 1935. ‘Notes on the Kaurna or Adelaide Tribe and the natives of Yorke Peninsula and the Middle North of South Australia.’ [Held in the South Australian Museum. Identifier: AA 338/1/35. ]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett). c.1935 - c.1991. ‘Vocabularies: Narangga, Ngadjuri.’ [Held in the South Australian Museum. Identifier: AA 338/7/1/13.]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett). 1935 - 1936 ‘Vocabulary of Narranga, SA Based on the notes of J. Howard Johnson (1898-1900) with additions from Norman Tindale.’ [Held in the South Australian Museum. Identifier: AA 338/8/18.]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett). 1935 ‘Narranga, Yorke Peninsula.’ [Held in the South Australian Museum. Identifier: AA 338/7/2/11 [Interview with Louisa Eggington to reconfirm Johnson’s list.]]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett). c.1930 - c.1991. ‘Place Names: drafts for text.’ [Held in the South Australian Museum. Identifier: AA 338/10/2.]

VARCOE, Nelson. 1994. Nunga languages at Kaurna Plains School, Adelaide. In Hartman, D. & Henderson, J. eds. Aboriginal languages in Education. Alice Springs: IAD Press. pp.33-39. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

VARCOE, Nelson & AMERY, Rob. 1994. Maikuku birku. [Narungga translation based on the Kaurna translation of Tucker's Mob, a children’s story written by Christobel Mattingley. Norwood, S. Aust.: Omnibus Books, 1992.] [ [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

WANGANEEN, Eileen & Narrunga Community College. 1987. Point Pearce: past and present. Underdale, S. Aust.: South Australian College of Advanced Education, Aboriginal Studies and Teacher Education Centre. [[Annotation: language notes and word list pp.7-20] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

WILKINS, D.P., & PETCH, A. 1997. Glossary [of Aboriginal words in the Gillen-Spencer correspondence]. In Morphy, Howard; Mulvaney, John & Petch, Alison My dear Spencer: the letters of F J Gillen to Baldwin Spencer. Melbourne: Hyland House. pp.487-533. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

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