Barngarla

Barngarla is located on the eastern side of Eyre Peninsula, north of the Nawu language.

It includes the country from Port Lincoln to the head of Spencer Gulf, including the township of Whyalla, and possibly beyond Port Augusta up to Lake Gairdner and Lake Torrens.

AIATSIS id : C.05

VARIATIONS

Arkaba-tura (men of Arkaba, a place in the northeast corner of their territory where they met Jadliaura people), Bahanga-la, Bahngala, Bangala, Ba:nggala, Banggala (valid alternative pronunciation), Banggarla (used by SIL), Ba:njgala, Barngarla (used by AIATSIS), Bungala, Bungeha (probably misreading of Bungela), Bungela, Kooapidna, Kooapudna (group around Franklin Harbour), Kortabina (place name), Pakarla, Pangkala, Pangkalla, Pankala, Pankalla, Pan-karla, Pankarla, Parkalla (typographical error), Parn-kal-la, Parnkala, Parnkalla, Parn-kal-la, Punkalla, Punkirla, Wanbirujurari ('men of the seacoast'; said of the southern groups by those in the north), Willara, Willeuroo (basic meaning 'west,' or 'westerner').

DISCLAIMER:

The above map is based upon the Horton Indigenous Map of Australia © Aboriginal Studies Press, AIATSIS, and Auslig/Sinclair, Knight, Merz, 1996. The full map is available on the AIATSIS website. The locations of the languages of SA, as stated on the this website are not intended for Land Claim use, and are an approximate guide only. Individual language project locations are based on information from publicly available MILR (ILS) documents.

+ Reference and Source Archive

BEDFORD, R., c.1868. ‘Manuscript Notes on Blackfellow Tribes and Languages of Eyre’s Peninsula’, South Australian Museum, AA26/1. [[Annotation: Contains vocabulary from a number of locations on the West Coast (including the Gawler Ranges). Informants: Whipstick Billy (Gawler Ranges); Ernie Wilson & Guerkin (Koonibba).]]

BEDDOME, H.L. 1886. Marachowie. In Curr, E.M. 1886. The Australian Race: its Origin, Languages, Customs, Place of Landing in Australia, and the Routes by Which It Spread Itself. Vol. 2, Govt Printer, Melbourne, pp132-135. VIEW HERE [[Approx. 200 words] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

BULMER, John, 1833-1913. [Notes on language and communication]. Held In; National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne - Papers, Box 11, folder 1, paper 19. [[vocabulary (208 items) for Fowlers Bay, Gawler Ranges and Koralbynia tribe]]

CAWTHORNE, W.A. 1858 The legend of Kuperree: or the red kangaroo: an Aboriginal tradition of the Port Lincoln tribe ; a metrical version : by the author of The Islanders. Adelaide: Alfred N. Cawthorne, Stationer, (Adelaide : Scrymgeour & Sons, Printers) 2nd ed. VIEW HERE [[With this are bound other pamphlets and lettered ’Pamphlets. Aborigines 1. ; another copy is bound in with other pamphlets and lettered ’Aborigines. Pamphlets’.] [Includes a vocabulary list at the back – possibly Barngarla?] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

CLENDON, Mark 2015. Clamor Schürmann's Barngarla Grammar: A Commentary on the First Section of 'A Vocabulary of the Parnkalla Language'. University of Adelaide Press. VIEW HERE []

COLE, A. 1879. Port Lincoln. In Taplin, G. The Folklore, Manners, Customs and Languages of the South Australian Aborigines. Adelaide: Government Printer, 1879, p102. VIEW HERE [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

CONDON, H. T. (Herbert Thomas). 1955. Aboriginal bird names - South Australia, pt 1 & 2. South Australian Ornithologist -- 1955; 21(6/7); 74-88; (8); 91-8. [[Annotation: Bird names in Aranda, Pitjantjatjara, Gugada, Antakarinya, Mirning, Wirangu, Yankunytjatjara, Wailbi, Wiljagali, Narangga, Kaurna, Ngadjuri, Bungandidj, Yawarawarga, Potaruwutj, Narrinyeri, Kujani, Yadliyawarra, Parnkala, Warki, Arabana, Dieri, Wangganguru, Ngamini, Nawu, Ngayawung, Nugunu & Ngalea. The wordlists have been taken from various other sources.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries.]]

ELKIN, A. P. (Adolphus Peter), (1891-1979). 1931. [[Field notes on South Australian tribes, 1930]: Notebooks numbered 1-9, 1930. [Elkin Papers, University of Sydney Archives]. ]

ELKIN, A. P. (Adolphus Peter). 1938. Kinship in South Australia. Oceania 8,4:pp.436-437. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

EYRE, E.J. 1845. Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Australia, and overland from Adelaide to King George’s Sound, in the years 1840-1. T & W Boone, London. VIEW HERE (Vol. 1) VIEW HERE (Vol. 2) [[Contains comparative vocabulary list taken from Schürmann. This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.] ]

FISCHER-COLBRIE, Mathilde. 1957. Die Pankala : Beitrage zu ihrer kulturellen und linguistischen Stellung auf Grund von linguistischethnologischen Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Speere, Speerschleudern und Keulen in Australien. [Posieux: Anthropos – Institut. (Micro - Bibliotheca Anthropos, v.27). AIATSIS print collection.]

HALE, Kenneth. (with G. N. O'GRADY). n.d. Parnkala field-notes. Harry Crawford [s.c. Croft]. Iron Knob. 6 March 1960. []

HERCUS, L. A. (Luise Anna), 1926-. 1965-1970. Songs, mythology, language elicitation and oral history. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive nos.: 02001 – 02126; Field tape numbers: 2-12, 15-16, 18-26, 40-57, 61, 63-66, 70-75, 77, 80, 86-100, 104-107, 113-114, 130-136, 138-143, 154, 156, 159-176, 178, 183, 188-191, 194-206, 212-215, 219, 221-231, 234-240, 253-255, 257, 259, 261-269, 274-284, 288, 297, 299-314, 317-331, 341-342 and 345-348; Access - some tapes are restricted - ceremonial and gender specific material. [Language content unknown.]]

HERCUS, L. A. (Luise Anna). 1963 - 1965. Language elicitation with some songs and explanations. AIATSIS Sound collection Archive Nos.: 00994 - 01001. Field tape numbers: FT 21 (16-22, 30-31; 33-39). []

LE SOUEF, A. A. C. (Albert Alexander Cochran),(1828-1902) & HOLDEN, R.W. 1886. Port Lincoln. In Curr , E.M. - The Australian Race , v.2, 1886; pp8-9. VIEW HERE [[Le Souef was a naturalist, Director of Zoological Gardens Melbourne, and legislator] [Approx. 200 words] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

O’GRADY, Geoff. 2001. Two southern Australian vocabularies: Parnkalla (Barngarla) and Karlamayi. [In Simpson, Jane; Nash, David; Laughren, Mary; Austin, Peter & Alpher, Barry. eds. Forty years on: Ken Hale and Australian languages, pp291-303. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. [based on data from Hale, Ken & O’Grady, 1960. (Harry Crawford at Iron Knob)] [This material is available at the State Libra]

RATHJEN, Cynthia. 1998. A difficult and boring task: Clamor Schürmann and the language achievements among the Parnkalla, Port Lincoln – 1840-1852. Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives No. 8, pp.59-98. []

SAWERS, A.D. 1886. Gawler Range. In Curr, E.M. The Australian race: its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia and the routes by which it spread itself over that continent. Melbourne. Government Printer: Vol. 2, pp130-132. VIEW HERE [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

SCHÜRMANN, Clamor Wilhelm. 1846. The Aboriginal tribes of Port Lincoln in South Australia their mode of life, manners, customs etc. Adelaide, George Dehane. VIEW HERE [[Reprinted in Woods, J.D., ed. The Native Tribes of South Australia, 1879; pp207-251.] Includes 10 words in Parnkalla, with additional vocabulary (presumably Parnkalla?) within the text. Also includes notes on language. [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith, Lutheran Archives and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

SCHÜRMANN, Clamor Wilhelm. 1844. A vocabulary of the Parnkalla language spoken by the natives inhabiting the western shores of Spencers Gulf, to which is prefixed a collection of grammatical rules hitherto ascertained. VIEW HERE [Adelaide: Dehane. (Facsimile, microfilmed by the South Australian Public Library, Adelaide, 1962). [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.] [2779 entries]]

SCHÜRMANN, Clamor Wilhelm. n.d. Diaries. [[Translated to English (p.121 onwards) (names of people and places throughout with some vocabulary relating to religion)] [This material is held at the Lutheran Archives; Parts published in Schürmann (1987) (op.cit.).]]

SCHÜRMANN, Edwin A. 1987. I'd Rather Dig Potatoes: Clamor Schurmann and the Aborigines of South Australia 1838-1853. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House. VIEW HERE [[Includes extracts from C.W. Schürmann’s diaries and publications]. [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

SIMPSON, Jane Helen. 1995. Making sense of the words in old wordlists. In Paper and talk; a manual for reconstituting materials in Australian indigenous languages from historical sources/ edited by Nicholas Thieberger - Canberra; Aboriginal Studies Press; pp121-146. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett), 1900-1993. c.1928 - c.1991. ‘Place Names: S.E. of S. Australia.’ [Held at SA Museum. Identifier: AA 338/7/1/45]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett), 1900-1993. c.1934. ‘Paŋkala, South Australia, C.W. Schürmann 1884.’ [Held at SA Museum. Identifier: AA 338/7/2/8]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett), 1900-1993. c.1934. ‘Paŋkala, South Australia, C.W. Schürmann 1884.’ [Held at SA Museum. Identifier: AA 338/7/2/9]

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