Yankunytjatjara

Yankunytjatjara speakers live in the north-west of South Australia. Prior to their displacement by Pitjantjatjara speakers, in about 1917, Yankunytjatjara communities inhabited the “Musgrave Ranges east of Oparinna, on Officer Creek; north to near Mount Robert, east to Everard Ranges, south to latitude 28°30” (see Tindale 1974, page 212).

Today, major Yankunytjatjara centres include Indulkana and Mimili.

A great community led resource for Yankunytjatjara language material is wapar.net.au.

A handy list of Yankunytjatjara and Pitjantjatjara (Western Desert) medical and health care terms can be found here.

Dialects and closely associated languages:

The Yankunytjatjara language is closely related to the language of the Antikirinya, Pitjantjatjara and Luritja people. Linguists typically classify Yankunytjatjara as a dialect of the Western Desert language group, which is spoken over vast areas of central Australia. Some people today see Antikirinya and Yankunytjatjara as different names for the same language.

Present number and distribution of speakers:

In 1981, David Nash & Kathy Menning estimated that there were “[p]erhaps a hundred speakers” of Yankunytjatjara (1981, page 34). More recently, Cliff Goddard has written of it being “spoken by several hundred people” (1992, page 93). In the 2006 Census 557 people claimed they speak Yankunytjatjara in the home, compared to 2,657 people speaking Pitjantjatjara in the home. In recent years there is concern amongst Yankunytjatjara adults that the children are growing up speaking the more widely spoken Pitjantjatjara language.

People who have worked on the language:

In the early 1980s, Cliff Goddard conducted extensive research into Yankunytjatjara. His fieldwork formed the basis of a doctoral thesis (1983), later published as A Grammar of Yankunytjatjara (see Goddard 1985). Over the next decade, Goddard continued to study Yankunytjatjara, producing language resources for Yankunytjatjara and Pitjantjatjara communities (Goddard 1982, 1987, 1996 & 1997), as well as a number of more academic articles (Goddard, 1990 & 1992). In all of these publications, Goddard acknowledged his reliance on Yankunytjatjara language experts and advisers. Over the years, he has been assisted by Tommy Tjampu, Pompey Everard, Tjilpi Kanytji, William Wangkati, Sam Pumani and Yami Lester, among others.

In more recent years, Petter Naessan has conducted research into Yankunytjatjra and Antikirinya, under the guidance of Bobby Brown and the late Mona Tur. Naessan completed a Masters thesis (2000) and a doctoral degree (2009) on different aspects of the language. He has also published papers in various journals on the sociolinguistics of Yankunyjrjatjar / Antikirinya. Naessan later worked on a MILR project with community members, particularly with Bobby Brown, to produce a Picture Dictionary in Yankunytjatjara.

Practical spelling system:

Yankunytjatjara has had a practical spelling system, with little modification, since the Presbyterian Mission opened a school at Ernabella in 1940. This orthography has rarely been modified. The missionaries chose to use underlining to differentiate between the two r-sounds r (the rounded sound) and r (the rolled r), which is often ignored by those writing the language. Some write the rolled r as a double rr. The underlining is also used to show the differnce between the retroflex sounds tl and n, and the non-retroflex sounds t, l and n. Again these differnces are commonly omitted by Yankunytjatjara speakers. As Goddard notes, “fluent speakers do not need them to read and write efficiently, since only a handful of words are distinguished from one another solely by the presence or absence of a single underline” (see Goddard 1996, page vi).

Early records and manuscripts:

Many earlier explorers, anthropologists and missionaries collected examples of the local language as they entered and travelled across Yankunytjatjara country; for example Basedow (1904), Black (1915), Cleland & Johnson (1937-8) and Tindale (1957). These records are held in the SA Museum archives. Many more records, however, are recorded in the neighbouring Pitjantjatjara language.

Wordlists and Dictionaries:

Since the 1980s, IAD Press has published a number of high quality Yankunytjatjara wordlists and dictionaries (Goddard, 1982, 1987 & 1996). The Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara dictionary is an extremely valuable resource with 3,500 head words, and many useful example sentences. It also lists words by topic, and hasds a finder list at the back. Goddard has also produced a  very handy Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara pocket dictionary, which unfortunately is out of print (Goddard, 1997).

Grammar or sketch grammar:

As a consequence of the location and priorities of the Ernabella Mission, many of the first grammars to be produced in Yankunytjatjara country were for the closely related, Pitjantjatjara language: for example, Love (1937), Trudinger (1943) and “Pitjantjatjara Grammar” (1958). Typically, these grammars included a number of Yankunytjatjara terms.

The first grammar to focus specifically on Yankunytjatjara was compiled by Goddard (1985), which gave Yankunytjatjara a welcome prominence over the past dominance of Pitjantjatjartaara as the mission language.

Language learning material:

In 1981, Goddard produced Yankunytjatjara-specific language learning material. Many more materials have been produced for Pitjantjatjara language learners. These often include an introductory comment noting that the materials are also suitable for anyone wanting to learn to speak Yankunytjatjara (see Eckert & Hudson, 1993, page 1).

Literature in the language:

Much of the early literature available for Yankunytjatjara readers was published in the closely related Pitjantjatjara language. This included children’s books and a sizeable collection of Christian literature and Biblical texts. For about a decade, from the mid 1980s onward, the presence of a number of Literature Production Centres on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands fostered the writing and publication of many texts in both Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara: for example Riley (1984), Weller (1984), Pingkayi (1989), Kenny (1988). Some literature was also produced by students undetaking the AnTEP program (for eample see AnTEP Students, 1995). At various times Anangu communities have also written, produced and sold community newsletters, particularly the Amata newsletter which included some creative writing in Piitjantjatjara in the 1980s.

In 1995, a group of Yankunytjatjara speakers and their supporters published a book on plant use in their own language (Everard, 1995). In more recent years, Naessan produced a Picture Dictionary in Yankunytjatjara with community members such as Bobby Brown. It was produced as a language teaching resource and contains many illustrated example sentences in Yankunytjatjara.

Language Programs:

In 2001, Yankunytjatjara was one of nine Indigenous languages taught in South Australian schools as part of LOTE requirements (see DECS statistics by Wilson & Tunstill, 2001). Since the late 1960s, Pitjantjatjara has been taught within the tertiary sector. Many participants have gone on to work in Yankunytjatjara communities. For many years, the late Mona Tur was  the main Indigenous language expert involved in the teaching of the university course. Mona was a member of the Antikirinya / Yankunytjatjara community, but taught the Pitjantjatjara language variety as well as her own.

Community language functions / activities:

Yankunytjatjara is the first language of several hundred people who use the language in all aspects of their lives. In addition, a number of programs/organisation operating within the remote communities in the north west of the state champion the use of the Yankunytjatjara language. The following activities have been undertain in Yankunytjatjara:

  • The Ara Irititja Archival Project: This project, established in 1994, provides Yankunytjatjara and Pitjantjatjara communities with access to historical and cultural materials. This includes providing them with copies of audio recordings in which senior members of their communities recount, in language, important events. A copy of the electronic archive was handed over to the predominantly Yankunytjatjara-speaking community at Mimili in October 2001.

  • AnTEP  Vernacular Literacy Workshop. In 1985, the South Australian College of Advanced Education (now the University of South Australia) launched the Anangu Teacher Education Program (now the Anangu Tertiary Education Program). This program has enabled Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara speakers living on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands to study towards a Diploma of Teaching qualification. As part of this course, Anangu students undertake Oral History projects and participate in a Vernacular Literacy Workshop, both of which lead to the production of Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara texts.

  • P/Y Media. This organisation produces electronic, visual and auditory materials for and about the communities living on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands. The use and celebration of the traditional language of this region is integral to all of this company’s visual and audio productions.

  • Radio 5NPY. This radio network, launched in 1998, broadcasts to over one fifth of Australia’s land mass. Many of its programs are in Indigenous languages, particularly Ngaanyatjarra, Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara. Eleven communities in South Australia and Northern Territory have BRACS units (Broadcasting in Remote Aboriginal Communities Scheme). These units allow communities to produce and transmit their own radio programs. BRACS units are located in Yankunytjatjara communities at Mimili and Indulkana.  

Above information written by Mary-Anne Gale

AIATSIS id : C.04

VARIATIONS

Alinjera, Ankundjara, “Everard Range Tribe”, Jan-gundjara, Janggundajara, Janggundjara, Jangkun(dja)tjarra, Jangkundjadjara, Jangkundjara, Jangundjara, Jangwundjara, Jankundjadjara, Jankundjara, Jankundjindjara, Jankuntjatara, Jankuntjatjara, Jankunzazara, Junkunzazzara, Kaltjilandjara, Kulban(dja)tjarra, Nankundjara, Wirtjapakandja, Wirtjapokandja, Yangundjadjara, Yangundyadyara, Yankundyari, Yankunjara, Yankuntjatjara, Yankunytjatjara. 

 DISCLAIMER:  The above map is based upon the Horton Indigenous Map of Australia © Aboriginal Studies Press, AIATSIS, and Auslig/Sinclair, Knight, Merz, 1996. The full map is available on the  AIATSIS  website. The locations of the languages of SA, as stated on the this website are not intended for Land Claim use, and are an approximate guide only. Individual language project locations are based on information from publicly available MILR (ILS) documents.

DISCLAIMER:

The above map is based upon the Horton Indigenous Map of Australia © Aboriginal Studies Press, AIATSIS, and Auslig/Sinclair, Knight, Merz, 1996. The full map is available on the AIATSIS website. The locations of the languages of SA, as stated on the this website are not intended for Land Claim use, and are an approximate guide only. Individual language project locations are based on information from publicly available MILR (ILS) documents.

+ Reference and Source Archive

ABORIGINAL COMMUNITIES OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA. 1993. Traditional Aboriginal medicines in the Northern Territory of Australia. Darwin: Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory. [[Annotation: Includes wordlist of plant names with Latin names – 33 entries.] ANTEP. 1985. Vernacular Literacy Workshop Report. Adelaide, AnTEP. [Annotation: In 1985, the South Australian College of Advanced Education (now the University of South Australia) launched the Aņangu Teacher Education Program (now the Aņangu Tertiary Education Program). This program has enabled Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara speakers living on the Aņangu Pitjantjatjara Lands to study towards a Diploma of Teaching ]

ARA IRITITJA ARCHIVAL PROJECT. n.d. [Annotation: Archives contain historical and cultural materials relating to Yankunytjatjara and Pitjantjatjara communities. A copy of the electronic archive was handed over to the predominantly Yankunytjatjara-speaking community at Mimili in October 2001.] FURTHER INFORMATION HERE []

AUSTRALIAN NATURE CONSERVATION AGENCY. c.1993. Uluru: Ulutu-Kata Tjuta National Park: tour operator workbook. Darwin: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, []

BAKER, Lynn. 1996. Mingkiri: a natural history of Uluru by the Mutitjulu community / compiled by Lynn Baker. Alice Springs, N.T.: IAD Press. [[Annotation: Includes a word list and pronunciation guide.]]

BATES, Daisy,(1859-1951). 1904. Native vocabularies - Central Australian tribes. VIEW HERE [[Held In: Box 8, Section 12, 2G, 8a (2); Barr Smith Library Special Collection & National Library of Australia, Canberra.] [Annotation: Large word list of several related languages – languages not separated.]]

BATES, Daisy. 1904. Native vocabularies - Central district. VIEW HERE [[Held In: Box 8, Section 12, 2G, 7; Barr Smith Library Special Collection & National Library of Australia, Canberra.] [Annotation: Yangganguri & other wonga of Ooleroo on border of S.A. and N.T., also other waters west, N.W. and south of border, also Musgrave Ranges, Ernabella area, etc.; – 450 words + short sentences.]]

BELL, Neil. 1988. The verbal categories of some dialects of the Western Desert language. MA thesis, Australian National University. []

BLACK J.M. 1915. Language of the Everard Range Tribe. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 39, pp. 732-735. VIEW HERE [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

BROWN, Priscilla. 1989. Yankunytjaku tjupiku / Priscilla Brownlu yara ngaatja wakanu. Papunya, N.T.: Papunya Literature Production Centre. [English title: How you go looking for honey ants.]

BRYCE, Suzy. 1998, [1992, 1986]. Women’s Gathering and Hunting. Alice Springs, N.T.: IAD Press. [[Mostly in English, with most items given their P/Y equivalent] ]

CLELAND J.B. & Johnston T.H. 1937/38. Notes on native names and uses of plants in the Musgrave Range region. Oceania, 8,2/3; pp. 208-215; pp. 328-342. []

CONDON, H. T. (Herbert Thomas). 1955. Aboriginal bird names - South Australia, pt 1 & 2. South Australian Ornithologist 21,6/7: pp74-88; 21,8: pp.91-8. [[Annotation: Bird names in Aranda, Pitjantjatjara, Gugada, Antakarinya, Mirning, Wirangu, Yankunytjatjara, Wailbi, Wiljagali, Narangga, Kaurna, Ngadjuri, Bungandidj, Yawarawarga, Potaruwutj, Narrinyeri, Kujani, Yadliyawarra, Parnkala, Warki, Arabana, Dieri, Wangganguru, Ngamini, Nawu, Ngayawung, Nugunu & Ngalea. The wordlists have been taken from various other sources.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries.]]

CROMBIE, Eileen, (1935-). 2003. He was a South Australian film star: my life with Billy Pepper. Murray Bridge, S. Aust.: Nyiri Publications. [[Annotation: Includes a word list.]]

DECS. 1994. Yankunytjatjara Stage A - Years R-2 Syllabus for second language learners at junior primary level. Department for Education and Children's Services, South Australia. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

DECS. 1997. Units of work for Yankunytjatjara. Adelaide: Dept. for Education and Children's Services, 1997. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

EDUCATION DEPT. OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 1993. Anangu students and English as a second language. Adelaide: Education Dept. of South Australia. Aboriginal education R-12 resource papers. Theme: language: no. 3. []

GODDARD, Cliff. 1982. Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara picture vocabulary/ illus. By J. Carter. Alice Springs, N.T., Language Program, Institute for Aboriginal Development. [ [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, Cliff. 1983. A semantically-oriented grammar of the Yankunytjatjara dialect of the Western Desert language. [PhD dissertation, Australian National University.]

GODDARD, Cliff. 1984. Cohesion and switch-reference in Yankunytjatjara. Language in Central Australia 1: pp35-42. []

GODDARD, Cliff. 1984. When to use that apostrophe? Language in Central Australia 3:pp11-13. [[contractions and elisions.]]

GODDARD, Cliff. 1985. A grammar of Yankunytjatjara. [Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development, 1985. (Thesis (Ph. D.) -- Australian National University, 1983) [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, Cliff. 1992. Traditional Yankunytjatjara ways of speaking – a semantic perspective. Australian Journal of Linguistics 12,1: pp. 93-122. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, Cliff. 1994. Lexical primitives in Yankunytjatjara. In Goddard, Cliff & Wierzbicka, Anna, eds. Semantic and lexical universals. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 229-262. []

GODDARD, Cliff. 1988. Verb serialisation and the circumstantial construction in Yankunytjatjara. In Complex sentence constructions in Australian languages / edited by Peter Austin. Amsterdam; John Benjamins; pp. 177-192. []

GODDARD, Cliff. 1990. The lexical semantics of good feelings in Yankunytjatjara. Australian Journal of Linguistics 10,2: pp. 257-292. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, Cliff. 1989. The natural semantics of love. Australian Linguistic Society. Conference. Monash University. []

GODDARD, Cliff. 1980-1982. Yankunytjatjara oral history and texts from Mimili area. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Nos.: 13540 – 13556. [Access: Some tapes are restricted - ceremonial and gender specific material.]]

GODDARD, C. 1987. A basic Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara to English dictionary. Alice Springs: IAD. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, Cliff. n.d. 43 Pitjantjatjara/Yankuntjatjara dictionary. Version corresponding to published dictionary 1987 Institute for Aboriginal Development (op.cit.) (+ a few other documents). [Hypercard version is at 0329 [Vocabulary: 7 files, 152 kB, ~1800 entries] Open to view but not to copy. [ASEDA.] ASEDA has several hypercard versions of the Goddard dictionaries like this.]

GODDARD, Cliff. 1987. English to Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara learner's wordlist. Alice Springs, N.T., Institute for Aboriginal Development. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, Cliff. 1987. English to Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara: basic wordlist, February 1987. Alice Springs, N.T.: Institute for Aboriginal Development. Language Studies Dept. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD C. 1991. Anger in the Western desert: a case study in the cross-cultural semantics of emotion. Man 26,2: pp. 265-79. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD C. 1992. Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara to English Dictionary. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development, [1987]. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, C. 1992. Traditional Yankunytjatjara ways of speaking – a semantic perspective. Australian Journal of Linguistics.12, 2. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD C. 1995. A Learner's Guide to Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara. Alice Springs: IAD, [1993, 1981]. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, Cliff & KALOTAS, Arpad. 1998. Punu: Yankunytjatjara plant use: traditional methods of preparing foods, medicines, utensils and weapons from native plants. Contributions from Pompey Everard et al. North Ryde: Angus & Robertson [. [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, C., TJAMPU, T. & EVERARD, P. 1996. Aboriginal Bird Names: of the Yankunytjatjara people of Central Australia/ compiled by Cliff Goddard, from recorded information by Tommy Tjampu, Pompey Everard : identification and descriptions : Kath Shurcliff : illustration and layout : Julie Jones. Alice Springs, IAD Press [[Based on 1986. Yankunytjatjara bird names. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development, & Yankunytjatjara bird names : Everard Ranges, South Australia/ [Alice Springs, N.T.]: Institute for Aboriginal Development 1981.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

GODDARD, Cliff, ELLIS, Elizabeth & COOK, Leanne. (Eds.) 1996. Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara pocket dictionary. Alice Springs, N.T., IAD Press. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.] HALE, Ken, (1934-2001). 1958-1960. Language elicitation, narratives and songs from Arnhem Land NT, Western desert, South Australia, Central Australia, and North Queensland. AIATSIS sound collection. Archive Nos.: 04512 - 04629. Field tape numbers: 701.7.1.17; 701.11.1.1-5; 701.13.1-8; 701.14.1,1(a); 701.15.1-3; 701.16.1-3; 701.20.1.1; 701.29.7.1-9; 701.29.9.1-12; 701.29.10.1-11; 701]

HALE, Ken. 1959. Yankunytjara-English (wordlist). AIATSIS print collection. []

HAMILTON, Annette. 1971. Field notes: 19th June - 31st August, 1971. Unpublished manuscript. [[Annotation: Includes flora terms.] AIATSIS print collection. [Access: Closed copying & quotation Principal and/or Depositor's permission.]]

KALOTAS, Arpad C. 1986. Punu pakaltjinganyi: Growing trees. Docker River, N.T.: Kaltukatjara Nguratjaku Council Inc. [[Annotation: Contains tree names.]]

KARTOMI, Margaret J. (Margaret Joy). 1969. Traditional songs and stories from Yalata and Bidinga. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Nos.: 01712 – 01718. Field tape number(s): KY69/1-27. [Access: Restricted - some tapes contain ceremonial material.] [Annotation: Children's songs, including lullabies; women's secret ceremony; hymns, country music; oral history; songs about droving; teaching children to sing songs; kinship; discussion about Daisy Bates.]]

KAVANAGH, M. (Ed.) 1990. Minyma Tjuta Tjunguringkula Kunpuringanyi. Pitjantjatjara Council. []

LAYTON, Robert, (1944-). 1977. Songs, sites and stories of Ayers Rock and the Olgas. AIATSIS sound collection. Archive Nos.: 06771 – 006781. Field tape number(s): RL 81-91. [[Access: Restricted - ceremonial and gender specific material.] [Annotation: Stories, sites and songs associated with the Olgas, including possum songs and explanations; other place names given from around Ayers Rock and Docker River; individual countries and place names associated; stories, including euro, sugar ant, and mala.]]

LAYTON, Robert. 1978. Discussion of sites in Uluru, Musgrave and Petermann Ranges area. [AIATSIS sound collection. Archive Nos.: 06794 – 06807. Field tape number(s): 104 – 117. [Access: Restricted - ceremonial, gender specific or personal material.] [Annotation: Mythology of Uluru; custodianship of objects; sites in Curtin Springs area; meeting about housing at Uluru; foraging technique]

LAYTON, Robert. 1977-1978. Place names and associated information from Central Australia. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Nos.: 06782 – 06793. Field tape number(s): RL 92-103. [Access: Restricted - ceremonial and gender specific material.] [Annotation: Stories associated with Uluru and neighbouring areas.]]

LAYTON, Robert. 1978. Recording of Pitjantjatjara Council meeting. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Nos.: 06808 – 06809. Field tape number(s): RL 118-119. [Access: Restricted - ceremonial, gender specific or personal material.]]

LAYTON, Robert. 1979. Interviews, discussion and stories relating to Uluru, for purposes of land claim. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Nos.: 06821 – 06835. Field tape number(s): RL131 – 145. [Access: Restricted - ceremonial, gender specific or personal material.] [Annotation: Life histories; comments on sites and discussion about stone arrangements; stories relating to Mutitjulu; identifying traditional owners; stories relating to Katatjuta; discussion of how to present land claim and genealogical data; songs and stories relating to Uluru.]]

LENNON, Jessie, (1925-). 1996. And I always been moving!: the early life of Jessie Lennon / illustrated by Doreen Brown, June Kunyi McInerney and Sammy Brown. Coober Pedy, SA:Jessie Lennon and Michele Madigan. [[Annotation: Autobiographical account by Jessie Lennon of her life so far, written in language as close to Jessie's speech as possible, with English and Anangu languages mixed.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

LENNON, Jessie. 2000. I'm the one that know this country!: the story of Jessie Lennon and Coober Pedy / compiled by Michele Madigan. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 2000. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

LESTER, Lucy, KEN, Sandra & WILSON, Greg. 1994. Maiku walytjapiti. [Yankunytjatjara translation of Tucker’s Mob, a children’s story written by Christobel Mattingley.] Norwood, S. Aust.: Omnibus Books. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

LESTER, Yami. 2000. Yami: the autobiography of Yami Lester. Alice Springs, N.T.: IAD Press. [[Annotation: In English, but liberally peppered with Yankunytjatjara words and phrases.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

LINDSAY, David. 1893. Journal of the Elder scientific exploring expedition, 1891-2. Adelaide: C.E. Bristow, Govt. Printer, pp.26-7. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

LOVE, J. R. B. (James Robert Beattie). 1935. Notes on grammar and vocabulary of the Wi: rtjapakandja tribe of the Musgrave Ranges, South Australia. [ [This material is available in the Barr Smith Library Special Collection and Tindale collection SA Museum Identifier: AA 338/9/1/3.]]

LOVE, J. R. B. (James Robert Beattie). 1915. Diary of a visit to Ernabella to establish a Presbyterian mission, 24 May - 24 Oct. 1937 AIATSIS print collection MF 204 [[Annotation: Throughout diary gives native names for rockholes, wells & other geographical features.]]

MENNING, Kathleen. 1981. Sourcebook for central Australian languages. Pilot edition. Alice Springs, N.T.: Institute for Aboriginal Development. [[Annotation: Includes 150 wordlist.]]

MOISSEEFF, Marika. 1993. Narrative in language. AIATSIS sound collection. Archive Nos.: Not yet archived. [[Access: Restricted - ceremonial, gender specific or personal material.] [Annotation: Story of the perentie and the goanna, told by Clancy Cramp from Hamilton Station, SA.]]

O'GRADY, Geoffrey N. & KLOKEID, T.J. 1969. Australian linguistic classification: a plea for coordination of effort. Oceania.39, 4: pp.298-311. [[Includes 100 words.] [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

PITJANTJATJARA YANKUNYTJATJARA MEDIA ASSOCIATION. VIEW HERE [[Annotation: Produces electronic, visual and auditory materials in Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara for and about the communities living on the Aņangu Pitjantjatjara Lands.]]

P/Y MEDIA ASSOCIATION 1987. Wangka kutjara: bilingual education. Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Media Association, Ernabella. 1 videocassette. [(Ernabella Video Productions). [N.B see file PYMEDIA_VIDEO_01, 'Bush Food Series No.1' for related documentation - 'Kurparu : Ernabellaku Tjukurpa' - Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Media Association, Ernabella (journal with bilingual text) held in Film Archive documentation.]]

RAA, Eric Ten & WOENNE, Susan Tod. n.d. Reference manual for computer processing of the research dictionary of the Western Desert language of Australia. [Perth]:Department of Anthropology, University of Western Australia [[Annotation: Suite of computer programs especially designed to handle Western Desert language material.] ]

RAA, Eric Ten & WOENNE, Susan Tod. 1970. Research dictionary of the Western Desert language of Australia. [Perth]: Department of Anthropology, University of Western Australia 1970. AIATSIS print collection. []

RADIO 5NPY. LISTEN HERE [[Annotation: Broadcasts many programmes in Ngaayatjarra, Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara. Through BRACS units (Broadcasting to Remote Aboriginal Communities Scheme) Yankunytjatjara communities at Mimili and Indulkana are able to produce and transmit their own radio programs.]]

SKOV, S. & RUEDIGER, S. 1992. Kurrunpa. Central Australian Rural Practioners’ Association 15: pp.31-34. [[Annotation: Includes wordlists in Pintupi, Yankunytjatjara, Pitjantjatjara.]]

TINDALE, Norman B. (1900-1993). 1931-37. Vocabulary of Pitjandjara, the language of the native of the Great Western Desert: (With some words of the Pintubi, Ngalia, Kukatja, Na : dadjara, Wirongu, Nanatadjara, Aranda, Janjundjadjara and Worda' ka languages). Adelaide: [[Typewritten copy], 138pp. [This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith Library and South Australian Museum.]]

TINDALE, Norman B. (Norman Barnett). 1957. Visit to the north west of South Australia and adjacent parts of Western Australia. Apr. - May 1957. [[Held in the SA Museum Identifier: AA 338/1/22/1.] [Annotation: 80 words in Jangkundjara.]]

TRUDINGER, R.M. 1943. Grammar of the Pitjantjatjara dialect, Central Australia. Oceania 13, 3: pp.205-223. [[This material is available at the State Library of South Australia, Barr Smith and other libraries in Adelaide.]]

TUNSTILL, Guy. 1981. Yankunytjatjara and Pitjantjatjara songs from Indulkana, SA area. [AIATSIS sound collection. Archive Nos.: Not yet archived. Field tape number(s): 1 – 34.]

WALLACE, Noel. 1967. [Nipper tells a story of his mother's country, King's Creek area, south of Areyonga and sings songs of that country]. AIATSIS sound collection. [Field tape W67-6. ]

WALLACE, Noel & WALLACE, Phyl. 1970 – 1973. Songs and stories from Amata, SA. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Nos.: 06486 – 06490. Field tape number(s): W73-1 to 10. [Access: Restricted - ceremonial, gender specific material.]]

WALLACE, Noel & WALLACE, Phyl. 1967. Songs from Ernabella, SA. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Tape No.: 00749. Field tape W67-6. [Access: Restricted - ceremonial, gender specific material.] [Performer/Speaker: Nipper; Place recorded: Ernabella, SA. Annotation: Nipper tells a story of his mother's country, King's Creek area, south of Areyonga and sings songs of that country.]]

WALLACE, Noel & WALLACE, Phyl. 1967. Songs, stories and discussion from Ernabella, SA. AIATSIS sound collection. [Archive Tape No.: 00749. Field tape W67- 4, 5. [Access: Restricted - ceremonial, gender specific material.] [Performer/Speaker: Nipper, Lanky, Tommy, Peter; Place recorded: Ernabella, SA.] [Annotation: Mouse story; songs and sacred board paintings; initiation stories and songs; stories of the eaglehawk and the crow; translations given in English.]]

WILLIAMS, Edna Tantjingu & WINGFIELD, Eileen Wani. 2000. Down the hole, up the tree, across the sandhills: running from the State and Daisy Bates / illustrated by Kunyi June-Anne McInerney. [[Variant title: Running from the State and Daisy Bates]. Alice Springs, N.T.: IAD Press. [Annotation: Contains some words.]]

WINFIELD, Cathy. 1982. Bush tucker: a guide to, and resources on, traditional Aboriginal foods of the north west of South Australia and central Australia. Wattle Park, SA: Wattle Park Teachers Centre. [[Annotation: Uses Yankunytjatjara terms.]]

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